|Factors to Consider||Possible Fair Use||Probably Need Permission|
|Purpose and Character of Work||Noncommercial, Educational, Scholarly, Newsworthy||Commercial, Entertainment|
|Nature of the Work||Factual, Based on Public Documents||Creative|
|Degree of Use||Small Portion of Work Copied||Entire Work copied|
Compared to Length of Work
|Small % used||Large % used|
|Exposure||Single Use, Small Audience||Multiple Use, Large Public Audience|
|Honesty of Use||Good Faith, Credit to Owner||Deception, Dishonesty|
‘Star Trek’ and Dr. Seuss Mash-Up Not Protected, Court Rules, a copyright infringement claim, NY Times - Dec 21, 2020
Europe Adopts Tough New Online Copyright Rules Over Tech Industry Protests, NY Times - March 26, 2019.
Are copyright laws too strict?, New Yorker - October 20, 2014.
Copyright Ruling, Chronicle of Higher Ed - May 15, 2012.
Seeks to Solve Librarians’ VHS-Cassette Problem - article in online CHE - January 25, 2012.
Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Academic and Research Libraries - January 2012.
"3-D" Printer and Copyright - article in the NYTimes, Nov 14, 2011, page B8.
Copyright and the World's Most Popular Song: Happy Birthday, and 2013 ruling Copyright Clearance Center: easy-to-use solutions for permission to re-use content.
Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA): Links to Fair Use Articles on the MPAA site.
"Whenever a copyright law is to be made or altered, then the idiots assemble." from Mark Twain's Notebook, 1902-1903. See twainquotes.com.